- Solomon Islands
Introduction ::Solomon IslandsBackground:The UK established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in the 1890s. Some of the most bitter fighting of World War II occurred on this archipelago. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. Ethnic violence, government malfeasance, and endemic crime have undermined stability and civil society. In June 2003, then Prime Minister Sir Allan KEMAKEZA sought the assistance of Australia in reestablishing law and order; the following month, an Australian-led multinational force arrived to restore peace and disarm ethnic militias. The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) has generally been effective in restoring law and order and rebuilding government institutions.Geography ::Solomon IslandsLocation:Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New GuineaGeographic coordinates:8 00 S, 159 00 EArea:total: 28,896 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 144land: 27,986 sq kmwater: 910 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than MarylandLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:5,313 kmMaritime claims:measured from claimed archipelagic baselinesterritorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nmClimate:tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weatherTerrain:mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atollsElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 mhighest point: Mount Popomanaseu 2,310 mNatural resources:fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, nickelLand use:arable land: 0.62%permanent crops: 2.25%other: 97.13% (2011)Irrigated land:NATotal renewable water resources:44.7 cu km (2011)Natural hazards:typhoons, but rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earthquakes, tremors, and volcanic activity; tsunamisvolcanism: Tinakula (elev. 851 m) has frequent eruption activity, while an eruption of Savo (elev. 485 m) could affect the capital Honiara on nearby GuadalcanalEnvironment - current issues:deforestation; soil erosion; many of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dyingEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location on sea routes between the South Pacific Ocean, the Solomon Sea, and the Coral Sea; on 2 April 2007 an undersea earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred 345 km WNW of the capital Honiara; the resulting tsunami devastated coastal areas of Western and Choiseul provinces with dozens of deaths and thousands dislocated; the provincial capital of Gizo was especially hard hitPeople and Society ::Solomon IslandsNationality:noun: Solomon Islander(s)adjective: Solomon IslanderEthnic groups:Melanesian 94.5%, Polynesian 3%, Micronesian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 0.2% (1999 census)Languages:Melanesian pidgin (in much of the country is lingua franca), English (official but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population), 120 indigenous languagesReligions:Protestant 73.7% (Church of Melanesia 32.8%, South Seas Evangelical 17%, Seventh-Day Adventist 11.2%, United Church 10.3%, Christian Fellowship Church 2.4%), Roman Catholic 19%, other Christian 4.4%, other 2.4%, unspecified 0.3%, none 0.2% (1999 census)Population:597,248 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 168Age structure:0-14 years: 36.8% (male 113,030/female 106,527)15-24 years: 20% (male 61,244/female 58,027)25-54 years: 35% (male 106,525/female 102,452)55-64 years: 4.3% (male 12,586/female 12,930)65 years and over: 4% (male 11,598/female 12,329) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 77.1 %youth dependency ratio: 71.2 %elderly dependency ratio: 6 %potential support ratio: 16.8 (2013)Median age:total: 21.3 yearsmale: 21.1 yearsfemale: 21.6 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:2.12% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Birth rate:26.9 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 48Death rate:3.88 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 209Net migration rate:-1.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 159Urbanization:urban population: 19% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:HONIARA (capital) 72,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:93 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 78Infant mortality rate:total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 102male: 19.03 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 14.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.66 yearscountry comparison to the world: 107male: 72.05 yearsfemale: 77.39 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:3.44 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 49Contraceptive prevalence rate:34.6% (2006/07)Health expenditures:8.6% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 51Physicians density:0.19 physicians/1,000 population (2005)Hospital bed density:1.4 beds/1,000 population (2005)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 94% of populationrural: 65% of populationtotal: 70% of populationunimproved:urban: 6% of populationrural: 35% of populationtotal: 30% of population (2000 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 98% of populationrural: 18% of populationtotal: 31% of populationunimproved:urban: 2% of populationrural: 82% of populationtotal: 69% of population (2000 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAObesity - adult prevalence rate:30% (2008)country comparison to the world: 27Children under the age of 5 years underweight:11.5% (2007)country comparison to the world: 64Education expenditures:7.3% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 19Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 84.1%male: 88.9%female: 79.2%School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 yearsmale: 10 yearsfemale: 9 years (2007)Government ::Solomon IslandsCountry name:conventional long form: noneconventional short form: Solomon Islandslocal long form: nonelocal short form: Solomon Islandsformer: British Solomon IslandsGovernment type:parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realmCapital:name: Honiarageographic coordinates: 9 26 S, 159 57 Etime difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:9 provinces and 1 capital territory*; Central, Choiseul, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Rennell and Bellona, Temotu, WesternIndependence:7 July 1978 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 7 July (1978)Constitution:7 July 1978Legal system:mixed legal system of English common law and customary lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:21 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Frank KABUI (since 7 July 2009)head of government: Prime Minister Gordon Darcy LILO (since 16 November 2011)cabinet: Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of parliament(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of parliament for up to five years (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually elected prime minister by parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of parliament; Gordon Darcy LILO elected on 16 November 2011Legislative branch:unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members elected from single-member constituencies by popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 4 August 2010 (next to be held in 2014)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SIDP 14, OUR 4, SIPRA 3, RDP 3, IDP 2, DDP 2, PCP 1, PFP 1, RUPP 1, SILP 1, SINP 1, independents 17Judicial branch:highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, and ex officio members to include the High Court chief justice and its puisne judges); High Court (consists of the chief justice and puisne judges as prescribed by the National Parliament)judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court president, chief justices, and puisne judges appointed by the governor-general upon recommendation of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, chaired by the chief justice to include 5 members, mostly judicial officials and legal professionals; all judges appointed until retirement at age 60subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts; local courts; Customary Land Appeal CourtPolitical parties and leaders:Direct Development Party or DDP [Dick HA'AMORI]Independent Democratic Party or IDP [Snyder RINI]People's Alliance Party or PAP [James MEKAB]People's Congress Party or PCP [Fred FONO]People's Federation Party or PFP [Rudolf DORA]Ownership, Unity, and Responsibility Party or OUR [Manasseh SOGAVARE]Reform Democratic Party or RDP [Danny PHILIP]Rural and Urban Political Party or RUPP [Samuel MANETOALI]Solomon Islands Democratic Party or SIDP [Steve ABANA]Solomon Islands Liberal Party or SILP [Derek SIKUA]Solomon Islands National Party or SINP [Francis HILLY]Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA]note: in general, Solomon Islands politics is characterized by fluid coalitionsPolitical pressure groups and leaders:Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM)Malaita Eagle Force (MEF)note: these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003International organization participation:ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, EITI (candidate country), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Collin David BECKchancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400L, New York, NY 10017telephone:  (212) 599-6192, 6193FAX:  (212) 661-8925Diplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in the Solomon Islands; the US ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon IslandsFlag description:divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green; blue represents the ocean; green the land; and yellow sunshine; the five stars stand for the five main island groups of the Solomon IslandsNational anthem:name: ""God Save Our Solomon Islands""lyrics/music: Panapasa BALEKANA and Matila BALEKANA/Panapasa BALEKANAnote: adopted 1978Economy ::Solomon IslandsEconomy - overview:The bulk of the population depends on agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of its livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Prior to the arrival of The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), severe ethnic violence, the closing of key businesses, and an empty government treasury culminated in economic collapse. RAMSI's efforts to restore law and order and economic stability have led to modest growth as the economy rebuilds.GDP (purchasing power parity):$1.922 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 194$1.822 billion (2011 est.)$1.646 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$1.01 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:5.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5410.7% (2011 est.)7.8% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$3,400 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 175$3,300 (2011 est.)$3,100 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 54.1%industry: 7.2%services: 38.6% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; fish; timberIndustries:fish (tuna), mining, timberIndustrial production growth rate:NA%Labor force:202,500 (2007)country comparison to the world: 170Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 75%industry: 5%services: 20% (2000 est.)Unemployment rate:NA%Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $380.7 millionexpenditures: $326.3 million (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:37.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 53Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):5.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):5.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1617.4% (2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:11.3% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6413.17% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$328.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 166$254.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$386.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 183$353.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$41.13 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 189$50.01 million (31 December 2011 est.)Current account balance:-$372.6 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 89-$207.9 million (2009 est.)Exports:$226.5 million (2010 est.)Exports - commodities:timber, fish, copra, palm oil, cocoaExports - partners:China 47.9%, Australia 16.6% (2012)Imports:$360.3 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 194Imports - commodities:food, plant and equipment, manufactured goods, fuels, chemicalsImports - partners:Singapore 26.6%, Australia 25.1%, China 7%, NZ 4.8%, Malaysia 4.7% (2012)Debt - external:$255.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 185$166 million (2004)Exchange rates:Solomon Islands dollars (SBD) per US dollar -7.3552 (2012 est.)7.6413 (2011 est.)8.0645 (2010 est.)Energy ::Solomon IslandsElectricity - production:82 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 200Electricity - consumption:76.26 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 200Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 168Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Electricity - installed generating capacity:14,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 196Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 8Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 160Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 110Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 158Refined petroleum products - consumption:1,728 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Refined petroleum products - imports:1,433 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 186Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 105Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 67Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 114Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:359,000 Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 183Communications ::Solomon IslandsTelephones - main lines in use:8,400 (2011)country comparison to the world: 203Telephones - mobile cellular:274,900 (2011)country comparison to the world: 174Telephone system:domestic: mobile-cellular telephone density is about 50 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) is the sole TV broadcaster with 1 station; multi-channel pay-TV is available; SIBC operates 2 national radio stations and 2 provincial stations; 2 local commercial radio stations; Radio Australia is available via satellite feed (2009)Internet country code:.sbInternet hosts:4,370 (2012)country comparison to the world: 148Internet users:10,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 201Transportation ::Solomon IslandsAirports:36 (2013)country comparison to the world: 110Airports - with paved runways:total: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 351,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 10under 914 m:24 (2013)Heliports:3 (2013)Roadways:total: 1,360 kmcountry comparison to the world: 178paved: 33 kmunpaved: 1,327 kmnote: includes 800 km of private plantation roads (2002)Ports and terminals:Honiara, Malloco Bay, Viru Harbor, TulaghiMilitary ::Solomon IslandsMilitary branches:no regular military forces; Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 142,913 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 118,921females age 16-49: 118,164 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 6,483female: 6,098 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:3.7% of GDP (2007)country comparison to the world: 30Transnational Issues ::Solomon IslandsDisputes - international:since 2003, the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, consisting of police, military, and civilian advisors drawn from 15 countries, has assisted in reestablishing and maintaining civil and political order while reinforcing regional stability and securityTrafficking in persons:current situation: The Solomon Islands is a source and destination country for local and Southeast Asian men and women subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; women from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines are recruited for legitimate work and upon arrival are forced into prostitution; men from Indonesia and Malaysia recruited to work in the Solomon Islands' mining and logging industries may be subjected to forced labor; local children are forced into prostitution near foreign logging camps, on fishing vessels, and at hotel and other entertainment venues; some local children are also sold by their parents for marriage to foreign workers or put up for ""informal adoption"" and then find themselves forced into domestic servitude or forced prostitutiontier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - The Solomon Islands does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has formed an ad hoc Solomon Islands Trafficking-in-Persons Advisory Committee and established an informal victim assistance referral procedure for law enforcement; the government did not pass the necessary implementing regulations for anti-trafficking legislation enacted in 2012, preventing authorities from using the new law to prosecute alleged traffickers; the government continues to rely on civil society or religious organizations to provide limited services to victims; the Solomon Islands is not a party to the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2013)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
Look at other dictionaries:
Solomon Islands — Solomon Islander. 1. an archipelago in the W Pacific Ocean, E of New Guinea; important World War II battles; politically divided between Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. 2. an independent country comprising the larger, SE part of this… … Universalium
Solomon Islands — 1. country on a group of islands in the SW Pacific, east of New Guinea: formerly a British protectorate, it became independent & a member of the Commonwealth in 1978: 10,954 sq mi (28,371 sq km); pop. 286,000; cap. Honiara 2. group of islands… … English World dictionary
Solomon Islands — (spr. ßóllŏmön aĭländs), englische Benennung der Salomoninseln (s. d.) … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Solomon Islands — [ sɔləmən aɪləndz], amtlicher englischer Name der Salomoninseln … Universal-Lexikon
Solomon Islands — For the group of islands rather than the state, see Solomon Islands (archipelago). Solomons redirects here. For the town in the eastern United States, see Solomons, Maryland. Solomon Islands … Wikipedia
Solomon Islands — Salomon (pays) « Îles Salomon » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Îles Salomon (homonymie) et Salomon … Wikipédia en Français
Solomon Islands — /sɒləmən ˈaɪləndz/ (say soluhmuhn uyluhndz) noun 1. an archipelago in the south western Pacific Ocean, east of New Guinea, extending for almost 1450 km. 2. a parliamentary state in the south western Pacific Ocean consisting of most of the Solomon … Australian English dictionary
Solomon Islands — geographical name islands W Pacific E of New Guinea divided between Papua New Guinea & the independent country (formerly a British protectorate) of the Solomon Islands (capital Honiara) area 11,500 square miles (29,785 square kilometers),… … New Collegiate Dictionary
Solomon Islands — noun 1. the southern Solomon Islands that since 1978 form an independent state in the British Commonwealth • Instance Hypernyms: ↑country, ↑state, ↑land • Part Holonyms: ↑Solomons • Part Meronyms: ↑Bougainville, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Solomon Islands — noun /ˈsɒl.ə.mən ˈaɪ.ləndz,ˈsɑ.lə.mən ˈaɪ.ləndz/ A country in Melanesia. Official name: Solomon Islands … Wiktionary